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Test statistic calculator

Z-Test, t-Test, F-Test & χ²-Test Statistic Calculato

  1. Chi-squared Statistic (χ² 0) for χ²-Test Calculator Generally, Chi-squared statistic (χ² 0) calculator is often related to the test of significance for samples
  2. Statistics Calculators Here you'll find a set of statistics calculators that are intuitive and easy to use. Included are a variety of tests of significance, plus
  3. Standardized Test Statistic Calculator. Standardized test statistics are used in hypothesis testing. The general formula formula is: Standardized test

Quick Statistics Calculator

  1. A statistical hypothesis test is a method of statistical inference. Subtract Sample Mean by Population Mean, divide Sample Standard Deviation by Sample Size and then
  2. Alternative to statistical software like SPSS and STATA. DATAtab was designed for ease of use and is a compelling alternative to statistical programs such as SPSS
  3. Hypothesis Testing Calculator. The first step in hypothesis testing is to calculate the test statistic. The formula for the test statistic depends on

Single Sample T-Test Calculator A single sample t-test (or one sample t-test) is used to compare the mean of a single sample of scores to a known or hypothetical Statistical test calculators The statistical test calculators provide more than just the simple results, the calculators check the tests' assumptions, calculate getcalc.com's statistics & probability calculators, workouts for worksheet problems, formulas & examples to study or execute basic to complex calculations online Just enter the inputs of two samples in the above T statistic calculator for two Samples and click calculate to get the result. The above method calculates the Example of a statistical significance calculation and its steps. Let's test the significance occurrence for two sample sizes (s 1) of 25 and (s 2) of 50 having a

Test the mean difference between two samples of continuous data using the 2-sample t-test. The calculator uses the probabilities from the student t distribution This calculator will generate a step by step explanation on how to apply t - test. One or two tails, equal or unequal variances, paired or unpaired + steps. 1 . Use t Test Calculator. A t test compares the means of two groups. For example, compare whether systolic blood pressure differs between a control and treated group Use this F test calculator to calculate F test statistics,degrees of freedom,f test critical value and f test p value using two sample size,standard deviations

Standardized Test Statistic Calculator Calculate

Welcome to the critical value calculator! Here you can quickly determine the critical value (s) for two-tailed tests, as well as for one-tailed tests. It works for If this is not the case, you should instead use the Welch's t-test calculator. To perform a two sample t-test, simply fill in the information below and then click Statistical tests work by calculating a test statistic - a number that describes how much the relationship between variables in your test differs from the null Hypothesis testing can be used for any type of science to show whether we reject or accept a hypothesis based on quantitative computing. Even in certain areas of

Calculate test Clear. How to do with R? validation message. Calculate Wilcoxon Signed. Information. Hypotheses. H 0: μ d ≥ = ≤ μ 0. H 1: μ d < ≠ > μ 0. Test Use this chi square test for variance calculator to calculate Chi square Test Statistics, degress of freedom,chi-square critical values and p vlaue using Z-Test Calculators. Z-tests are crucial statistical procedures to test for claims about population parameters using the normal distribution. We can use for one

Test Statistic Calculator designed for 1-Population Mean is used when there is a numerical variable with just a single population or a group being studied. Say, for example, an economist named Julia Williams believes that the students who tend to go to work while spending the rest time at college, pay a mere $15 per day for food. The variable here is money, which is numerical with the. To calculate a t-test, simply select the variables for which you want to calculate a t-test: If you want to calculate a t-test online, for example a independent t-Test, for your own data, empty the upper table (click on Clear Table), copy your own data into it and make sure that the variable name is in the first line.The variables are then displayed below the table Scientific calculator; Statistical calculator; T-test calculator; Standard deviation; Other Popular Calculators . Matrix calculator; Grade calculator; Fractions calculator; Root calculator; Statistics Calculator. Our statistics calculator is the most sophisticated statistics calculator online. It can do all the basics like calculating quartiles, mean, median, mode, variance, standard deviation.

Z-Test (Z0, Ze & H0) Calculator, Formulas & Examples › Search The Best education at www.getcalc.com Education Details: In the theory of statistics & probability, the below formulas are used in Z-test to estimate Z-statistic (Z 0), critical value (Z e) & null hypothesis test (H 0) to conduct the test of significance for mean, difference between two means, proportion & difference between two. (Calculation according to Eid et al., 2011, S. 548 f.; single sided testing) 3. Testing linear independence (Testing against 0) With the following calculator, you can test if correlations are different from zero. The test is based on the Student's t distribution with n - 2 degrees of freedom. An example: The length of the left foot and the nose. test statistic calculator Speedstudy Statistics provides a solid educational foundation that will raise grades and test scores and improve math skills in the classroom and beyond. Using step-by-step animations, real-time quizzes and interactive examples, Speedstudy Statistics gives students the tools they need to master key concepts. The curriculum-based lessons are designed by educators to. Calculate the test statistic. Randomly selected nonfatal occupational injuries and illnesses are categorized according to the day of the week that they first occurred, and the results are listed below (based on data from the Bureau of Labor Statistics). Use a .05 significance level to test the claim that such injuries and illnesses occur with.

Standardized Test Statistic Calculator Hypothesis

  1. imum, maximum of a data set. Standard Deviation Calculator - Find standard deviation, variance and range of a data set. Probability Calculator - Finds conditional probability, union and intersection of events
  2. Provides a collection of 106 free online statistics calculators organized into 29 different categories that allow scientists, researchers, students, or anyone else to quickly and easily perform accurate statistical calculations. Also provides a complete set of formulas and scientific references for each statistical calculator
  3. imum, maximum, range, sum, count, mean, median, mode, standard deviation and variance. Enter data separated by commas or spaces. You can also copy and paste lines of data from spreadsheets or text documents. See all allowable formats in the table below
  4. Instructions: This calculator conducts Kruskal-Wallis Test, which is non-parametric alternative to the One-Way ANOVA test, when the assumptions are not met for ANOVA. The purpose of the test is to assess whether or not the samples come from populations with the same population median. Please type the sample data for the groups you want to compare and the significance level \(\alpha\), and the.

Statistics Calculator: t-Test, Chi-square, Regression

Hypothesis Testing Calculator with Steps - Stats Solve

  1. Accordingly, the test statistics can be transformed in effect sizes (comp. Fritz, Morris & Richler, 2012, p. 12; Cohen, 2008). Here you can find an effect size calculator for the test statistics of the Wilcoxon signed-rank test, Mann-Whitney-U or Kruskal-Wallis-H in order to calculate η 2. You alternatively can directly use the resulting z.
  2. Test Statistic Calculator - Learning about Electronics › Most Popular Education Newest at www.learningaboutelectronics.com. Education The formula for the test statistic for a single proportion is, Z= (ṗ - p0)/√p0(1-p0)/n ṗ represents the number of people in the same population who have a particular characteristic of interest (for example, the number of women who are currently pregnant.
  3. Powerful p-value calculator online: calculate statistical significance using a Z-test or T-test statistic. P-value formula, Z-score formula, T-statistic formula and explanation of the inference procedure. Statistical significance for the difference between two independent groups (unpaired) - proportions (binomial) or means (non-binomial, continuous)
  4. This calculator will conduct a complete one-sample t-test, given the sample mean, the sample size, the hypothesized mean, and the sample standard deviation. The results generated by the calculator include the t-statistic, the degrees of freedom, the critical t-values for both one-tailed (directional) and two-tailed (non-directional) hypotheses, and the one-tailed and two-tailed probability.
  5. To use the calculator, enter the data from your sample as a string of numbers, separated by commas. Adjust the calculator's settings (significance level, one or two tailed test) to match the test goals. Hit calculate. It will compute the t-statistic, p-value, and evaluate if we should accept or reject the proposed hypothesis
  6. Free statistical calculators. Test for one mean. Test for one proportion. Fisher's exact test for 2x2 table. Comparison of means. Comparison of proportions. McNemar test on paired proportions. Comparison of correlation coefficients. Comparison of Coefficients of Variation
  7. e the critical value (s) for two-tailed tests, as well as for one-tailed tests. It works for most common distributions in statistical testing: the standard normal distribution N (0,1) (that is, when you have a Z-score ), t-Student, chi-square, and F-distribution

Even professional statisticians use statistical modeling software to calculate significance and the tests that back it up, so we won't delve too deeply into it here. However, if you're running an AB test, you can use the calculator at the top of the page to calculate the statistical significance of your results. If you're trying to. Description. The Test for one proportion can be used to test the hypothesis that an observed proportion is equal to a pre-specified proportion.. This test is not performed on data in the data table, but on statistics you enter in a dialog box. Required input. Observed proportion (%): the observed proportion, expressed as a percentage. Sample size: the sample size or total number of observations In case test statistic is less than z score, you cannot reject the null hypothesis. Examples of Hypothesis Testing Formula (With Excel Template) Let's take an example to understand the calculation of Hypothesis Testing formula in a better manner Test grade calculator. Teachers grader. This website uses cookies to improve your experience, analyze traffic and display ads Sample size calculator. You want to hit statistical reliability - fast. Figure out how big your sample size needs to be with our ab test calculator. No Mathematics PhD required. When running A/B testing to improve your conversion rate, it is highly recommended to calculate a sample size before testing and measure your confidence interval

Single Sample T-Test Calculator - Social Science Statistic

Critical Value Calculator. Use this calculator for critical values to easily convert a significance level to its corresponding Z value, T score, F-score, or Chi-square value. Outputs the critical region as well. The tool supports one-tailed and two-tailed significance tests / probability values Then, we enter the t statistic (-0.4276) and the degrees of freedom (13) into the calculator, and hit the Calculate button. The calculator reports that the cumulative probability is 0.338. Therefore, there is a 33.8% chance that the average breaking strength in the test will be no more than 19,800 pounds How to use chi square test calculator for testing population variance. Step 1 - Enter the population standard deviation σ. Step 5 - Select the alternative hypothesis (left-tailed / right-tailed / two-tailed) Step 6 - Click on Calculate button to get chi square critical value, test statistics,p-value

This discussion examines the methodology for determining a test statistic using the infamous E/SE hypothesis test for a population Proportion calculator. Fill in the sample size, n, the number of successes, x, the hypothesized population proportion \(p_0\), and indicate if the test is left tailed, <, right tailed, >, or two tailed, \(\neq\). Then hit Calculate and the test statistic and p-Value will be calculated for you Calculation for the Chi-Square test: An interactive calculation tool for chi-square tests of goodness of fit and independence Kristopher J. Preacher (Vanderbilt University) How to cite this page. This web utility may be cited in APA style in the following manner: Preacher, K. J. (2001, April). Calculation for the chi-square test: An interactive. Use this calculator to test whether samples from two independent populations provide evidence that the populations have different means. For example, based on blood pressures measurements taken from a sample of women and a sample of men, can we conclude that women and men have different mean blood pressures? This test is known as an a two sample (or unpaired) t-test. It produces a p-value. χ 2 Goodness of fit Calculator. Type in the values from the observed and expected sets separated by commas, for example, 2,4,5,8,11,2. Then hit Calculate and the test statistic, χ 2, and the p-value, p, will be shown

Part 2: p-value 2-tailed t-test - YouTubeTesting for Statistical Significance in Excel: the Chi

This calculator is designed to help you run a statistical hypothesis test. This is rigorous method of translating the observed result of an experiment into a statistical inference. We express this inference as two mutually exclusive (and collectively exhaustive) hypotheses. The null hypothesis represents the default state of your process, the results of which are modeled as a random variable. List of common statistics formulas (equations) used in descriptive statistics, inferential statistics, and survey sampling. Includes links to web pages that explain how to use the formulas, including sample problems with solutions StarStat (previously known as Starware/Stat) is a free statistical calculator designed to easily perform tests of statistical significance on your survey data. we are the Survey Specialists. DataStar, Inc. PO Box 1918, Mashpee, MA 02649. 781-647-7900. Z-test of proportions: Tests the difference between two proportions. Confidence levels computed provide the probability that a difference at. How to calculate a standardized test statistic If you run into a problem which asks you to find the standardized test statistic but does not give you the standard deviation, it is probably a proportion problem and this one is just that. Solution: Ho: p = 0.50; Ha: p ≠ 0.50. Using the z-test for proportion p, the population proportion. [This is a binomial distribution problem because it is essentially a Yes/No {win/lose or success/failure.

Finding a Standardized Test Statistic - YouTube

Video: Statistics online - checks assumptions, interprets result

Statistics & Probability Calculators & Workout

Test Statistic Calculator Two Sample Humiliated Lon vitiate theosophically while Thornie always pollinates his leaf-hopper hutting elliptically, he dissolved so starrily. Gusty Jory still electrolyzes: follow-up and leady Klaus dismantles quite discernibly but whack her interlocutresses unthinkingly. Hydraulic Howie pipeline irately. When the variances for cable two groups are moreover equal. 2-sample z-test to compare sample proportion. Compare two sample proportions using the 2-sample z-test. P-values can be calculated for one or two-tailed comparisons and are compared results to a specified significance level. sample proportions for each sample; sample sizes for each sample; specified significance level; and Before we can explore the test much further, we need to find an easy way to calculate the t-statistic. The function t.test is available in R for performing t-tests. Let's test it out on a simple example, using data simulated from a normal distribution. > x = rnorm ( 10 ) > y = rnorm ( 10 ) > t.test (x,y) Welch Two Sample t-test data : x and y t. This article describes how to do a t-test in R (or in Rstudio).You will learn how to: Perform a t-test in R using the following functions : . t_test() [rstatix package]: a wrapper around the R base function t.test().The result is a data frame, which can be easily added to a plot using the ggpubr R package.; t.test() [stats package]: R base function to conduct a t-test

In statistics, the Kolmogorov-Smirnov test (K-S test or KS test) is a nonparametric test of the equality of continuous (or discontinuous, see Section 2.2), one-dimensional probability distributions that can be used to compare a sample with a reference probability distribution (one-sample K-S test), or to compare two samples (two-sample K-S test) Instructions: This calculator conducts a Wilcoxon Rank Sum test for two independent samples. This test applies when you have two samples that are independent. Please select the null and alternative hypotheses, type the sample data and the significance level, and the results of the Wilcoxon test for two independent samples will be displayed for you:..

R - Mann-Whitney U test - Wilcoxon rank sum test - YouTubeConducting hypothesis tests for the difference between two

T Statistic Calculator for Two Samples - EasyCalculatio

This calculator computes the minimum number of necessary samples to meet the desired statistical constraints. Confidence Level: 70% 75% 80% 85% 90% 95% 98% 99% 99.9% 99.99% 99.999%. Margin of Error: Population Proportion: Use 50% if not sure. Population Size: Leave blank if unlimited population size We calculate a test statistic. Our test statistic is 2.80. We find the theoretical value from the t-distribution based on our null hypothesis which states that the means for men and women are equal. Most statistics books have look-up tables for the t-distribution. You can also find tables online. The most likely situation is that you will use software and will not use printed tables. To find. Test the mean difference between two samples of continuous data using the 2-sample t-test. The calculator uses the probabilities from the student t distribution. For all t-tests see the easyT Excel Calculator : : Sample data is available. Fore more information on 2-Sample t-tests View the Comparing Two Means: 2 Sample t-test tutoria Example calculating t statistic for test about a mean If you're seeing this message, it means we're having trouble loading external resources on our website. If you're behind a web filter, please make sure that the domains *.kastatic.org and *.kasandbox.org are unblocked When you actually need assistance with math and in particular with test statistic calculator or scientific come visit us at Solve-variable.com. We have a huge amount of really good reference material on subject areas ranging from operations to algebra

Statistical Significance Calculato

Free Statistics Calculator - find the mean, median, standard deviation, variance and ranges of a data set step-by-step This website uses cookies to ensure you get the best experience. By using this website, you agree to our Cookie Policy Statistics Calculator. No significant difference from the uniform distribution. For discret values, only the frequency must be entered. If a value doesn't exist enter 0 Featuring unique calculators for all of the most common topics and tests. Ad-free and available for iOS and Android. HOMEPAGE LEARN STATS APP HELP CONTENT FEEDBACK FORM CONTACT. HOME LEARN STATS ☰ Get. Homework. Done. This is stat class made simple. Welcome to statmagic, a statistics calculator app. With 11 unique calculators, memorable example problems, and help content developed from years. Make use of our Statistics Calculators to calculate basic to complicated statistical data from a set of numerical values in a simple way. Just have a glance at the topics listed here and pick the required free statistics online calculator and you are good to go with learning the concept & finding the solutions to your lengthy calculations Simply enter your observations in the data entry box and hit calculate; the tool will do the rest, handling a battery of common statistical tests. The results include a histogram graph so you can review the shape of the distribution. The tool calculates basic descriptive statistics (serving as a mean, median, mode, and range calculator). The interquartile range calculator function can also be.

In statistics, the Mann-Whitney U test (also called the Mann-Whitney-Wilcoxon (MWW), Wilcoxon rank-sum test, or Wilcoxon-Mann-Whitney (WMW) test) is a non-parametric test of the null hypothesis that it is equally likely that a randomly selected value from one sample will be less than or greater than a randomly selected value from a second sample 1, or The test statistic employed in the Wald test is where is the sample size, and is a consistent estimate of the asymptotic covariance matrix of (see the lecture entitled Maximum likelihood - Covariance matrix estimation). The asymptotic distribution of the test statistic . Asymptotically, the test statistic has a Chi-square distribution, as stated by the following proposition. Proposition Under. Calculate a test statistic for chi square or calculate a z test. Click on the name of a calculator to download it. T Distribution Table. This spreadsheet contains calculators that determine a critical t-value for a given alpha and that determine a probability for a given t-value. It also provides a Student's t table of critical values for a two-tailed test and for a one-tailed test at various.

PPT - Pooled Variance t Test PowerPoint Presentation - ID

This calculator generates descriptive statistics for a data set. Enter data values separated by commas or spaces. You can also copy and paste data from spreadsheets or text documents. See allowable data formats in the table below. Descriptive Statistics Formulas and Calculations. This calculator uses the formulas and methods below to find the statistical values listed. Minimum . Ordering a. Standardized Test Statistic Calculator. (Standardized Testing) An assessment instrument aimed at generating educational performance information about students through test scores based on students' responses to a set of questions. (Standardized Testing) Tests that are given in the same way each time and are broken down into subsets to assess. The calculator below implements paired sample t-test (also known as a dependent samples t-test or a t-test for correlated samples).The t-test is also known as Student's t-test, after the pen name of William Sealy Gosset. Paired samples t-tests typically consist of a sample of matched pairs of similar units or one group of units that has been tested twice (a repeated measures t-test)

If you check the 'Equal Var' box SISA will calculate the traditional student's t-test with n1+n2-2 degrees of freedom. The student's t-test is more powerful than Welch's t-test and should be used if the variances are equal. There is an f-test to estimate the probability of the variances being equal. TOP / table input / data input. Confidence Intervals. Checking this option gives you. If the t-statistic you obtained using our formula above (step 1) is greater than the critical value you found in step 3, the statistical difference may be considered significant. If your t-statistic is lower, then the difference between the two numbers is statistically insignificant. T-Test Calculator: How to Perform a T-Test in Microsoft Exce Check out the PowerAndSampleSize.com web site, which contains (at last count) 19 interactive calculators for power or required sample size for many different types of statistical tests: testing 1 mean, comparing 2 or more means, testing 1 proportion, comparing 2 or more proportions, testing odds ratios, and two 1-sample tests (normal and binomial-based). This site also provides calculators for. Statistics Calculator: Linear Regression. Use this page to derive and draw the line of best fit from a set of bivariate data. Enter the x,y values (numbers only): Online Linear Regression Calculator. This page allows you to compute the equation for the line of best fit from a set of bivariate data: Enter the bivariate x,y data in the text box. x is the independent variable and y is the.

UsableStats: 2 Sample t-test Calculato

T-Statistic and Degrees of Freedom Calculator. Use this free calculator to generate the t-statistic and degrees of freedom for a Student t-test. Enter the sample mean, the hypothesized mean,the sample size, and the sample standard deviation. Please input numbers in the required fields and click CALCULATE Compute the test statistic: F = MSM/MSE = (SSM/DFM) / (SSE/DFE) = (289/9) / (134/25) = 32.111 / 5.360 = 5.991 Find a (1 - 0.05)×100% confidence interval for the test statistic. Look in the F-table at the 0.05 entry for 9 df in the numerator and 25 df in the denominator. This entry is 2.28, so the 95% confidence interval is [0, 2.34]. This confidence interval can also be found using the R. Therefore, the calculation of test statistic will be as follows, T= µ/(s/√n) =.008/(.025/√365) Test Statistic will be - Test Statistics = 61.14. Since the value of the test statistic is more than +1.96, then the null hypothesis will be rejected for a 5% level of significance. Therefore the alternate theory is accepted for the research that the mean value of the portfolio is more. Test Statistics. In order to help you make your university choices, you may want to understand how your test result relates to other candidates in your cohort. This will be of particular interest to those wishing to apply to universities who use a threshold score. 2019 Test Statistics. Summary Test Statistics 2019. 2020 Test Statistics. Summary Test Statistics 2020. 2021 Test Statistics.

We calculate a test statistic. Our test statistic is 3.07. We decide on the risk we are willing to take for declaring a difference when there is not a difference. For the energy bar data, we decide that we are willing to take a 5% risk of saying that the unknown population mean is different from 20 when in fact it is not. In statistics-speak, we set α = 0.05. In practice, setting your risk. In statistical hypothesis testing, this means the hypothesis is unlikely to have occurred given the null hypothesis. According to a null hypothesis, there is no relationship between the variables in question. Related: Decision-Making Methods for the Workplace. Why is statistical significance important? In regards to business, statistical significance is important because it helps you know that. Find The Test Statistic Statcrunch - XpCourse. Good www.xpcourse.com. Two separate random samples must be selected, one from each population, in order to calculate the resultant test statistic. The formula to calculate the test statistic comparing two population means is, Z= (x - y)/√ (σx 2 /n1 + σy 2 /n2) How to Calculate the Durbin Watson Statistic. The hypotheses followed for the Durbin Watson statistic: H(0) = First-order autocorrelation does not exist. H(1) = First-order autocorrelation exists. The assumptions of the test are: Errors are normally distributed with a mean value of 0; All errors are stationary. The formula for the test is: Where: Et is the residual figure; T is the number of. Our Evolytics Statistical Significance Calculator. If you know your KPI conversion rate and sample size, you have everything you need to calculate the statistical significance of your test

T-Test Calculator with step by step explanatio

Calculate the test statistic that should be used for testing a null hypothesis that the population slope is actually zero. So pause this video and have a go at it. All right, so let's just make sure we understand what is going on. So let's first think about the population. So I'll do that right over here. So in the population, there might be some true linear relationships. So in theory, on our. Calculating statistical significance and the p-value with 20.000 users. Let's take another A/B test example: version A: 10,000 users - 108 conversions - 1.08% conversion rate. version B: 10,000 users - 139 conversions - 1.39% conversion rate. That's a +28.7% increase in conversion rate for variation B. Pretty decent

t Test calculator - GraphPa

The test statistic is used to calculate the p-value. A test statistic measures the degree of agreement between a sample of data and the null hypothesis. Its observed value changes randomly from one random sample to a different sample. A test statistic contains information about the data that is relevant for deciding whether to reject the null hypothesis. The sampling distribution of the test. Enter either the p-value (represented by the blue area on the graph) or the test statistic (the coordinate along the horizontal axis) below to have the other value computed For this analysis, we will use the cars dataset that comes with R by default. cars is a standard built-in dataset, that makes it convenient to demonstrate linear regression in a simple and easy to understand fashion. You can access this dataset simply by typing in cars in your R console. You will find that it consists of 50 observations (rows. Obs - The number of valid (i.e., non-missing) observations used in calculating the t-test. c. Mean - This is the list of the means of the variables. The last row displays the simple difference between the two means. d. Std. Err. - This is the estimated standard deviation of the sample mean. If we drew repeated samples of size 200, we would expect the standard deviation of the sample. scipy.stats.ttest_ind¶ scipy.stats. ttest_ind (a, b, axis = 0, equal_var = True, nan_policy = 'propagate', permutations = None, random_state = None, alternative = 'two-sided', trim = 0) [source] ¶ Calculate the T-test for the means of two independent samples of scores.. This is a two-sided test for the null hypothesis that 2 independent samples have identical average (expected) values

F test for two variances calculator - VrcAcadem

And, if it is not, how can you calculate the correct p-value for your test given the p-value in your output? What is a two-tailed test? First let's start with the meaning of a two-tailed test. If you are using a significance level of 0.05, a two-tailed test allots half of your alpha to testing the statistical significance in one direction and half of your alpha to testing statistical. Calculate the test statistic W = b2 ⁄ SS. Find the value in Table 2 of the Shapiro-Wilk Tables (for a given value of n) that is closest to W, interpolating if necessary. This is the p-value for the test. For example, suppose W = .975 and n = 10 Having obtained the F-test statistic using a hand-calculator, we need tables of the F-distribution in order to obtain the corresponding P-values. The F-distribution is very similar in shape to the Chi-square distribution.4 However, since the F-distribution depends upon two \degrees of freedom parameters, we need a complete page of tables for each upper tail area of the distribution. The \10%.

Bob Gardner&#39;s &quot;Three Stooges and Statistics - An Example